AK Lower Body Dysfunctions Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Manual Muscle Testing for Lower Extremity Dysfunctions

David S. Walther
Contributions from Scott Cuthbert

  • Abductor Hallucis
  • Extensor digitorum longus and brevis
  • Extensor hallucis longus and brevis
  • Flexor digitorum brevis
  • Flexor hallucis longus and brevis
  • Gastrocnemius and soleus
  • Intrinsic plantar foot muscles
  • Lumbricales and interossei
  • Peroneus longus and brevis
  • Peroneus tertius
  • Popliteus
  • Tibialis anterior
  • Tibialis posterior

Chapter 2: Peripheral nerve entrapments (Introduction)

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Entrapment Neurophysiology
    • Case Report: AK management of Parsonage-Turner Syndrome
  • Cranial nerve entrapment
  • Common sites of entrapment
  • Clinical algorithm for AK treatment of piriformis syndrome
  • Cross Stimulation and Light Pressure
  • Double Crush
  • Ischemia
  • Examination
    • History
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Medications with neuropathy as a potential side-effect
    • Palpation and Inspection
    • Cutaneous
    • Muscle
    • Nerve
    • General Physical
    • Sensibility Studies
    • Circulatory Evaluation
    • Doppler
    • Doppler use in thoracic outlet
    • X-ray

Chapter 3: Peripheral nerve entrapments lower extremity

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
  • Obturator nerve
  • Femoral nerve
  • Saphenous nerve
  • Piriformis Syndrome
  • Peroneal Nerves
    • Common Peroneal
    • Superficial Peroneal nerve
    • Deep Peroneal
  • Tibial nerve
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
    • Symptoms
    • Etiology
    • Examination
    • Treatment
  • Plantar Nerves
  • Plantar Interdigital Nerualgia (Morton’s Neuroma)
    • Anatomy
    • Symptomatic Pattern
    • Treatment
    • Introduction
  • Ilioinguinal nerve
  • Plantar nerves
  • Interdigital nerves

Chapter 4: Foot and Ankle

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • General examination and body language
    • Symptomatic
    • Appearance of the foot
    • Shoe wear
  • Meridian system influenced by foot and ankle dysfunction
  • Non-weight bearing examination
    • Palpation
    • Shock absorber test
  • Static weight-bearing examination
    • Helbing’s sign
    • Knee and leg position
    • Weight-bearing tests
  • Dynamic examination
  • AK Foot and Ankle Examination Algorithm
  • Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Physiology
    • Divisions and Motions of the Feet
    • Classification of the Forefoot
    • Motions, Positions, and Fixed Structural Positions of the Foot
    • Adduction
    • Abduction
    • Inversion
    • Eversion
    • Dorsiflextion
    • Planter Flexion
    • Pronation
    • Supination
  • Foot Osteology
    • Hindfoot
    • Calcaneus (os calcis)
    • Talus (astragalus)
    • Midfoot
    • Navicular
    • Cuboid
    • Cuneiform Bones
    • Forefoot
    • Metatarsal Bones
    • Phalanges
    • Accessory Bones
  • Foot mechanics – the close examination
  • Foot reflexes
  • Ligaments of the foot
  • Muscles of the foot and lower leg
    • Extrinsic Muscle System
    • Intrinsic Muscle System
  • Arches of the Foot
  • Bony Architecture
  • Ligaments and Aponeurosis
  • Muscle Role in Support of the Arch
    • Foot Weight Bearing
  • Ankle Anatomy and Function
  • Ankle Stability in Active Function
  • Ligament stretch reaction
    • Correction
  • Foot and Ankle Motion
    • Plantar Flexion and Dorsiflexion
  • Foot Reflexes and Reactions
  • Positive support reaction
    • Examination of the Positive Support Reaction
  • Pronation
  • Etiology
    • Short Triceps Surae
    • Tarsal Coalition
    • Peroneal Spastic Flatfoot
    • Internal tibial Torsion or Malleolar Torsion
    • Ligamentous Laxity
    • Hypermobility syndrome
    • Prehallux or Accessory Navicular
    • Talipes Calcaneovalgus
  • Postural Influence
  • Examination
    • Static Stance
    • Dynamic Evaluation
    • Palpation for Pain
    • Joint Motion and Challenge
    • Muscle Evaluation
    • X-Ray Evaluation
      • Tarsal Coalition
      • Tibiotalar Motion
  • Joint and Muscle Correction
    • Articular Adjusting
    • Lateral or Medial Talus
    • Rotated Cuboid
    • Lateral Cuboid
    • Inferior Cuboid
    • Inferior Navicular
    • Superior Mid-Tarsal bones
    • Inferior Cuneiforms
  • Plantar Fasciitis and Heel Spurs
    • Etiology and Symptoms
    • Treatment
  • Forefoot in extended pronation
  • Transverse Arch in extended pronation
  • Types of Metatarsalgia
    • Extended pronation in metatarsalgia
    • Loss of Transverse Arch
    • High arch
    • Normal (medium) arch
    • Footwear
    • Cavus Foot
    • Imbalance of Weight Distribution
    • Sesamoiditis
    • Metatarsalgia differential diagnosis
    • Treatment
  • Freiberg’s Infraction and Bone Fragmentation
  • Stress Fractures
  • Functional hallux limitus (FHL)
    • Foot stabilization
    • Calcaneocuboid locking
    • Truss and locking wedge effect
    • Windlass effect
    • Sequence of motion during gaiting
  • The effects of FHL
    • Symptoms
  • Examination
  • Podiatry and FHL
  • Applied kinesiology and FHL
    • Liver meridian
    • Origin and insertion technique
    • Repeated muscle activity patient induced
    • Muscle stretch reaction
    • Maximum muscle contraction
    • Rib pump technique
    • Deep peroneal nerve
    • Support
  • Hallux rigidus
  • Hallux Valgus
    • Etiology
    • Congenital Bone Formation
    • Footwear
    • Muscle Role
    • Pronation
    • Examination and Treatment
    • First Metatarsal and 1st Cuneiform Adjustment
    • First Metatarsophalangeal Adjustment
    • Support
    • Surgery
  • Shoes
    • Proper Shoe Fit
    • Foot Support
    • Material for Padding and Taping
    • Medial Longitudinal Arch
    • Metatarsal support
  • Orthotics
  • Foot Rehabilitation
    • Foot rehabilitation with yoga
    • Triceps Surae Stretch
    • Thigh and Spinal Muscles
    • Planter Muscle Exercise
    • Obtaining Foot Flexibility

Chapter 5: Leg and Ankle

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Ankle
  • Tibial torsion
  • Ankle sprains
  • Types and severity of sprains
    • Orthopedic signs and tests for ankle involvements
    • Nerve injury accompanying ankle sprains
  • Prevention and optimal function
  • Exercise
  • Proprioceptive training
  • Tape and support
  • Peroneal tendon dislocation
  • Achilles Tendon
    • Achilles tendonitis
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Achilles bursitis
    • Tibialis posterior tendinitis
    • Achilles tendon rupture
    • Examination
  • Shin splints
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
  • Compartment syndrome
    • Chronic compartment syndrome
    • Acute compartment syndrome
    • Treatment
  • Restless leg syndrome (RLS)
    • Medical treatment for RLS
    • Side-effects
    • AK treatment for RLS

Chapter 6: Applied kinesiology and systemic conditions of the lower body

Mark Force
Contributions from Scott Cuthbert and David S. Walther

  • Introduction
  • Testing biochemistry with AK
  • Viscerosomatic reflexes and Muscle-Organ-Gland relationships
  • Somatoautonomic nervous system, somatovisceral reflexes, and manual therapies
  • Myofascial release and somatovisceral effects
    • Percussion and myofascia
  • Therapeutic manipulation of visceral myofascial adhesions
  • Common areas of myofascial problems
  • Somatic fascia
  • Visceral myofascia
    • Visceral myofascial therapy by Barral
    • Visceral myofascial therapy by Walker
    • Visceral myofascial therapy by Chaitow (Specific Release Technique)
    • Visceral repositioning (Ptosis)
  • The pelvic region – chronic pelvic pain (CPP)
    • Inguinal hernia
  • Urinary tract dysfunction
    • Urinary incontinence
    • Urinary incontinence: AK case series report
  • Nocturia
  • Cystitis and interstitial cystitis
  • AK and digestive dysfunction
  • Stomach and small intestine
    • Hydrochloric acid
    • Hiatal hernia
    • Case Report: AK and severe digestive burning
    • Protein digestion
    • Protein and arthritis
    • Acid-Alkaline balance
  • AK and the large intestine
    • Large intestine and rectal cancer
    • Ileocecal valve syndrome
    • Alimentary canal flora
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease)
    • Adrenal involvement in large intestine dysfunctions
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (mucous colitis)
    • Constipation
    • Dehydration
    • Diarrhea
    • Infantile colic
    • Obesity
    • Post-antibiotic effects and candidiasis
    • Fecal matter matters
  • Reproductive systems
  • Female reproductive system
    • Infertility and amenorrhea
    • Dysmenorrhea
    • Pain, prostaglandins, and dysmenorrhea
    • Premenstrual syndromes
    • Estrogen imbalances
    • Endometriosis
    • Polycystic ovary disease
    • Vaginitis/Vaginosis
    • Benign uterine fibroid/leiomyoma
  • Male reproductive system
    • Prostate disease
  • Aching pain, lactic acidosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction
    • Urea-Guanidine cycle and deep aching pain
    • Inactivity aggravated pain and calcium metabolism
    • Burning pain, NSAIDs, and the prostaglandin system
    • Trans fatty acids
    • Itching, edematous pain and bradykinin
  • Systemic inflammatory pain
    • Oxidation
    • Methylation
    • Homocysteine
    • Leukotrienes
    • Glycation
  • Focal occult infection
  • Joint pain
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Circulatory system
    • Varicose veins
  • Edema
    • Edema due to nutrient deficiencies
    • Biochemical individuality and subclinical nutrient deficiency
    • Impaired microcirculation
    • Raynaud’s syndrome
    • Blood hyperviscosity syndromes
    • Rouleaux formation
    • Blood viscosity and Rouleaux interactions
  • Applied kinesiology’s future in stress-related illness