AK Essentials Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Applied Kinesiology: Introduction

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Applied Kinesiology
  • AK integration of complementary and alternative medicine

Chapter 2: The AK concept confirmed: Muscle inhibition is the primary characteristic of painful muscles

Scott Cuthbert

  • Six types of muscle weakness
    • Tightness weakness
    • Stretch weakness
    • Fatigue weakness
    • Osteoarthritis weakness
    • Arthrogenic weakness
    • Myofascial trigger point weakness
    • Goodheart and Travell
    • Muscle inhibition associated with back pain: the evidence

Chapter 3: AK’s diagnostic advantages: challenge and therapy localization

Scott Cuthbert
With Contributions from David S. Walther, Anthony Rosner, Walter H. Schmitt

  • Diagnosing the process, not just the name
    • Cellular chemistry
    • Neuromuscular patterns
    • Sympathetic-Parasympathetic regulation
    • Endocrine imbalances
    • Challenge
      • Advantages of AK sensorimotor challenge
      • Form and Force Closure
      • Improving diagnostic focus
      • Therapy localization (TL)
        • Disorders that demonstrate TL
        • TL and Janda’s abnormal movement pattern tests
        • Essence of TL
        • TL in human studies
        • TL in animal studies
        • What is being evaluated? A cautionary note
        • Prevention is possible

Chapter 4: Why is the manual muscle test an important diagnostic tool?

Scott Cuthbert, George J. Goodheart

  • Operational definitions of the manual muscle test
  • The reliability and validity of the manual muscle test as an examination tool
  • Reliability of the MMT
    • What does reliability mean?
    • Table 1: Characteristics of 22 studies of the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability of manual muscle testing
    • Complete blinding? = Substantial reliability
    • Evidence accumulates
    • Caution
    • Making sense of manual muscle tests
    • Responsibilities of practitioners
    • Validity of the manual muscle test and the expanding construct validity of the MMT
      • Essential evidence of the expanding construct validity of MMT
      • Table 2: Characteristics of 11 studies showing the prevalence of muscle dysfunction in patients with back pain
      • Convergent and discriminant validity of the MMT
      • Therapy localization shows substantial specificity and sensitivity
      • Table 3: Characteristics of 9 studies examining the concurrent validity of MMT
      • Machines or hands: the choices
      • Predictive and trial validity (accuracy) of the MMT
      • Table 4: Characteristics of 18 studies examining the clinical relevance, predictive validity and accuracy of MMT
      • Table 5: The “trial validity” of AK. Characteristics of 35 case reports of positive experiences for patients (n= 1-154) assessed and treated with AK MMT methods 

Chapter 5: Neurologic Examination: Neurophysiology of AK diagnostic methods

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther 

  • Dysease versus Disease
  • Sensory and motor responses to pain
  • Sensorimotor receptors
  • Mental receptors
  • Afferent and efferent systems
  • Proprioception and altered muscle function
  • Cognitive development parallels motor development
  • Sensory potential
  • Joint proprioception
  • Joint mechanoreceptor effects on muscle
  • Muscle proprioception
  • Equilibrium
  • Sensory and motor integrative methods in AK are reflective of nervous system function 

Chapter 6: The triad of health in applied kinesiology

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Whole body diagnosis
    • Structure
    • Chemical
    • Essential information about nutritional assessments using AK
    • AK nutritional assessment calls for consideration of process
    • Critical assessments of AK methods of nutritional evaluation in the literature
    • AK nutritional assessments: how not to conduct a study
    • Nutritional considerations a necessity in holistic treatment
    • Table 1: Partial list of nutritional disorders underlying clinical conditions diagnosed and successfully treated using AK methods
    • Mental
    • Somatization – mind and muscles
      • Scott Walker
      • John Diamond
      • Roger Callahan
      • Gary Craig

Chapter 7: The triad of health in the real world

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Interactions between lower body dysfunctions made evident with AK
    • Structural emphasis
    • Chemical emphasis
    • Mental-emotional-psychosocial emphasis
    • Real World Case Reports: Interactions Within the Triad of Health
    • Structure Affecting Chemical
    • Chemical Affecting Structure
    • Chemical Affecting Mental
    • Mental Affecting Chemical
    • Mental Affecting Structure
    • Structure Affecting Mental

Chapter 8: Five factors of AK treatment

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Nerve
  • Neurolymphatic reflex
    • Neurological model of neurolymphatic reflexes
    • Table 1: Partial list of conditions improved by AK neurolymphatic reflex treatment
    • Neurovascular reflex
      • Table 2: Partial list of conditions improved by AK neurovascular reflex treatment
      • Cerebrospinal fluid
        • Systems of cranial examination
        • Palpation for cranial mobility
        • Motion
        • Manual muscle testing: improved reliability in diagnosis of cranial dysfunctions
        • Cranial challenge
        • Muscles and cranial bones: intimate functional connections
        • Acupuncture Meridian System (See chapter 10)

Chapter 9: The Muscle-Organ-Gland Association: Holistic Health Care Made Verifiable

Scott Cuthbert
Contributions from David S. Walther

  • Viscerosomatics: wider evidence of functional changes
  • DeJarnette’s example
  • Musculovisceral (viscerosomatic) evidence accumulates
  • Modern updates in the science of tone
  • The State of Evidence-Based Practice in AK
  • Table 1: Partial list of organic conditions improved by AK
  • International College of Applied Kinesiology

Chapter 10: Applied Kinesiology and Traditional Chinese Medicine

John Stump, Scott Cuthbert, Bart Stark

  • Introduction
  • Chiropractic and TCM/Meridian therapy
  • Basics
    • AK Algorithms of diagnosis and treatment for TCM involvement
    • AK memory keys for TCM concepts
    • AK expedites treatment options for active alarm points
    • Alarm, Back Shu, and Source Points with MMT
    • AK more readily measures Qi
    • 5-Element theory
    • AK treatment considerations
    • Tongue diagnosis
    • Table 1: AK outcomes research in the treatment of TCM imbalances
    • The Bi-Digital O-Ring test (BDORT) of Yoshiaki Omura
    • John Francis Thie, Founder of Touch for Health
    • Scientific links between AK and TCM/Meridian therapy
      • Myofascia based acupuncture: the anatomy and movement of Qi
      • Advantages of myofascial hypothesis
      • Neural theories of acupuncture: additional links between AK and TCM
      • The nervous system and Qi
      • Case report: AK and meridian system diagnosis for hearing and vision loss
      • Cutaneomotor and cutaneovisceral reflexes: further AK and TCM links
      • Viscero-cutaneous reflex
      • What is Qi? (Is it measurable?)
        • Other research into the energy of Qi
        • Skeptics of TCM and chiropractic
        • Acupuncture needles
        • TCM effectiveness
          • Case report: AK and meridian system diagnosis for arterial hypertension
          • Case report: AK and meridian system diagnosis relates ankle sprain to gall bladder attack
          • Case report: AK and meridian system diagnosis of breathing stress and chest pain
          • Summary

Chapter 11: AK and evidence-based medicine

Anthony Rosner

  • Traditional building blocks of EBM
  • Limitations of EBM and transformation to “evidence-informed” best practices
  • Traditional methods of measurement at the highest echelons
    • Randomized controlled trials
    • Systematic reviews, meta-analyses
    • Bias and omissions in other systematic reviews and meta-analyses
    • Modified designs to improve the base and application of evidence in healthcare
      • Pragmatic trials
      • Factorial designs
      • Preference trials
      • n-of-1 trials
      • Randomized encouragement design
      • Nonrandom quantitative assignment of treatment
      • Pragmatic clinical trials
      • AK’s relevance to neuroimmunology, pediatric, and emotional health is documented, incorporating approaches and evidence from chiropractic, osteopathic, biomedical, TCM, nutritional and biochemical research literature
      • Whole systems research
      • Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM)
      • AK research evidence more congruent with progressive definitions of EBM than commonly assumed