Whiplash Dynamics and Manual Muscle Testing Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Whiplash Dynamics and Manual Muscle Testing

 

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………….. iii

About the Authors and Contributors……………………………. iv

Preface……………………………………………………………………………. v

Reviews…………………………………………………………………………. vi

Table of Contents ……………………………………………………….. viii

Chapter 1: Manual Muscle Testing for Whiplash Associated Disorders……………. 7

Cervical Flexors Sternocleidomastoid…………….. 2

Scalenus Medius………………………………………… 6

Scalenus Posticus……………………………………….. 6

Longus Capitis…………………………………………… 8

Longus Colli………………………………………………. 8

Cervical Extensors Upper Trapezius…………….. 10

Splenius Capitis……………………………………….. 13

Splenius Cervicis……………………………………… 13

Semispinalis Capitis…………………………………. 13

Semispinalis Cervicis……………………………….. 13

Levator Scapula……………………………………….. 15

References:…………………………………………………….. 17

Chapter 2: Whiplash Dynamics and Manual Muscle Testing………………………… 19

Whiplash: What is it?……………………………………. 21

MMT Approach to Herniated
Cervical Discs and Radiculopathy…………………. 24

Perspectives toward “Whiplash.” …………………. 27

Reflections on the Dynamics of Whiplash……. 29

References: ……………………………………………………. 31

Chapter 3: Epidemiology of Whiplash………………………………………………………. 35

Body Language of WAD and
Neurological Disorganization………………………. 36

The “Whiplash Injury Pattern” ……………………. 39

Seatbelt Designs……………………………………………. 41

WAD from Athletic Trauma…………………………. 42

WAD in “Shaken Infant Syndrome”…………….. 43

References:…………………………………………………….. 45

Chapter 4: The Manual Muscle Test:
A Clinical Preduction Rule for Soft Tissue Trauma………………………………… 47

Brain and CNS Trauma…………………………………. 51

Cranial Dysfunctions in Whiplash
Associated Disorder………………………………………. 52

Universal Cranial Fault and WAD………………… 55

References:…………………………………………………….. 58

Chapter 5: Temporomandibular Disorder Management in WAD:
The Jaw is a Neuromuscular Organ……………………………………………………… 61

The Identificationof Muscle Dysfunction
in Wad: a Key to Successful TMD Treatment.. 64

An Integrated System of Muscle Function
Testing and Treatment for TMD…………………… 65

Temporomandibular Joint and
Whiplash Associated Disorders……………………. 68

References:…………………………………………………….. 70

Chapter 6: Disturbances In Eye Movement Control & Vision………………………. 73

Vestibular System…………………………………………. 80

AK Improves Sensory Integration…………… 81

References:…………………………………………………….. 85

Chapter 7: Vertebral Artery Syndrome …………………………………………………….. 89

Anatomy………………………………………………………… 90

Iatrogenic Role in Vertebral
Artery Accidents……………………………………………. 92

Risk Factors……………………………………………… 93

Trauma……………………………………………………. 93

Age …………………………………………………………. 93

Medications ……………………………………………. 93

Anomalies ………………………………………………. 93

Provocative Tests…………………………………….. 93

George’s test36………………………………………………………………………….. 94

Dizziness test38 ………………………………………… 95

Maigne’s maneuver39………………………………………………… 95

De Kleyn’s test40…………………………………………………………… 95

Extension test41 ……………………………………….. 95

Hautant’s test42 ……………………………………….. 95

Unterberger’s test43 …………………………………………………… 95

False Sense of Security…………………………….. 95

“Spontaneous” Accidents………………………………. 96

Similar Unrelated Symptoms……………………….. 97

Manipulative Plan ………………………………………… 97

If Manipulation Creates Symptoms …………….. 98

Legal………………………………………………………………. 98

Pre-existing Conditions ……………………………….. 99

Low Back Involvement ……………………………….. 100

References:………………………………………………….. 104

Chapter 8: Psychosocial Factors in WAD…………………………………………………. 109

Emotional Patterns……………………………………… 111

References:…………………………………….114